新聞動態

胡志堅院長接受中國日報專訪——“中美雙方只有通過合作才能謀求發展大計”

來源:中國日報

日期:2019-08-12

 

  Technology strategist hails successful projects achieved through cooperation

    The United States and China have benefited greatly from cooperation in science, technology and innovation, a senior Chinese science strategist said, lamenting the recent protectionist turn in the US.

    Hu Zhijian, president of the Chinese Academy of Science and Technology for Development, said an objective appreciation of such accomplishments would help ease recent technology and trade frictions and reveal new grounds for win-win cooperation between the countries.

China and the US had been close partners in integrated research and development for most of the past four decades, Hu said.

    From 2012 to 2015, the number of collaborative research projects involving Chinese and US institutions increased by more than 80 percent, according to a blue paper on China's contribution to STI and global governance published by the academy last year. Chinese and US scientists had co-authored more than 55,000 papers by 2014.

    Moreover, scientists from both countries had cooperated on climate change, clean energy, environmental protection, health, agriculture and other fields related to sustainable development and people's livelihoods, the blue paper said.

    It added that Chinese enterprises had set up research and development facilities in the US, while US companies had established more than 800 R&D centers in China covering industries including electronics, information technology, software, food manufacturing, cosmetics, home furnishing and finance.

    "These interactions have created a flow of talent and know-how to provide better products and services for the people of both countries and the world," Hu said.

    Over time, China and US had developed different but crucial positions in the global industrial system and value chain, Hu said. The US was at the top, given its leading position in STI and emerging industries, while China was at the middle and lower end of the industrial and value chain, but striving to climb up.

    Like Japan, Singapore, South Korea and other countries before it, China was improving its people's living standards through education, trade, infrastructure investment and technologies.

    "These feats mean China will inevitably close its gap with developed countries," Hu said. "But it does not mean China wants to or is capable of challenging the US's global dominance."

    Historically, China's technological rise was not an issue that troubled the US, he said, because the US maintained its lead role by attracting the best talent from around the world to fuel its STI efforts - pushing new frontiers, making new products and climbing up the industrial value chain.

   "However, STI development is an arduous process, and the US has grown increasingly anxious that its lead is being eroded," Hu said. "So instead of staying ahead via continued innovation, it has turned protectionist toward China and other developing countries and used unconventional means, from tariffs to travel restrictions, in the hope of keeping them behind."

    At the same time, the US was plagued by many domestic issues, ranging from growing social inequality to rising corporate influence, and ordinary US people, notably those from Midwestern states, felt disenfranchised by globalization and technological progress because "the fruits of these trends have been mostly reaped by the elites from coastal states".

    "When internal issues become too difficult to handle, politicians often rely on scapegoating to divert public frustration and attract support, especially during election years," Hu said.

    "But the US public must realize that blaming China and other countries for its economic, social and existential woes will not solve its issues, it will only exacerbate them to disastrous levels for all."

    Despite the US's effort to disconnect with China, Hu said full detachment was unlikely in the long run because it would not be in the interests of either country.

    "China's market and its pivotal role in the global industrial chain are too important for US companies to give up," he said.

    In addition, science requires the exchange of ideas and collaboration to progress. When faced with common challenges, from climate change to changing ethical landscapes in artificial intelligence and biosciences, "it will require a global joint effort to find the best solution to tackle these emerging issues," Hu said.

    "Dividing the scientific community and the world, as some politicians are implying, is dangerous and counterintuitive to maximizing the potential of science and its benefit for the people," he said.

    Given the unpredictability of the current US administration, China needs to "keep a rational, objective outlook and focus on improving its own capability at its own pace", he said. "We must have the confidence and patience to get through turbulent times."

    

   

科技戰略專家呼籲通過合作謀求發展大計

中國一位資深科學戰略家表示,美國和中國均在科學、技術和創新方面的合作中受益匪淺,並對美國最近逐漸擡頭的保護主義感到遺憾。

中國科學技術發展戰略研究院(以下簡稱戰略研究院)院長胡志堅表示,客觀地理解兩國在合作上取得的成就有助于緩解中美近期的技術和貿易摩擦,並能揭示兩國之間重新合作共贏的新可能。

胡志堅說:“過去四十年的大部分時間裏,中美兩國在研發方面一直是密切的合作夥伴”。

根据戰略研究院去年发布的关于中國科技进步对世界的贡献与全球科技创新治理的蓝皮书所述,2012年2015年,中美研究機構共同參與的合作研究項目數量增加80%。截至2014年,中美國的科学家共同撰写了55,000篇論文。

此外,蓝皮书提到,兩國科学家在气候变化、清洁能源、环境保护、健康、农业以及与可持续发展和人民生活有关的其他領域进行了合作。

藍皮書還提到,中國企业在美國设立了研发機構,而且美國公司在中國建立了800多個研發中心,涵蓋電子信息技術軟件食品生産、化妝品家居和金融等領域

“這些互動創造了兩國人才和技術的相互交換和流動,从而为兩國和全世界人民提供了更好的产品和服务,”胡志堅說。

胡志堅表示,随着时间的推移,中美兩國在全球工业体系和价值链中发展到了不同但至关重要的地位。鉴于美國在科技创新和新兴产业中的領先地位,其已雄踞顶端位置,反观中國处于工业和价值链的中低端,但正在努力攀升。

與排在中國前面的日本、新加坡、韩國和其他國家一样,中國正在通过教育、贸易、基础设施投资和技术提高人民的生活水平。

“这些举措意味着中國将不可避免地缩小与发达國家之间的差距,”胡志堅說,“但这并不意味着中國想要有能力挑战美國的全球统治地位。

他說,从历史上看,中國的技术崛起并非构成困扰美國的問題,因为美國通过吸引世界各地的优秀人才来推动其科技创新的不断向前開拓的前沿領域,制造新产品和攀登工业价值链,以此來維持其領先地位

“然而,科技創新的发展是一个艰难的过程,美國對于其領先优势受到削弱感到深深的焦慮胡志堅“因此,美國不是通過持續創新,而是在面對中國和其他发展中國家時奉行保護主義,並采用從關稅到旅行限制非常規手段,以期保持自身的領先地位

与此同时,美國受到许多國内問題的困扰,从不断加剧的社会不平等到不断增强企业影响力,普通美國人,特别是来自中西部各州的美國人,被全球化和技术进步所剥夺,因为“這些趨勢的成果大多掌握在沿海各州的精英手裏”。

“当美國國内問題變得難以處理時,政客們常常依靠替罪羊來轉移公衆的挫敗感並相應獲得選民支持,特別是在總統大選期間,”胡志堅說。

   “但美國公众必须意识到,将本國经济、社会和存在的困境归咎于中國和其他國家并不能解决它的問題,反而只会使得这些問題得到惡化,直至對所有人来說災難性的地步。

胡志堅表示,尽管美國努力与中國断绝关系,但从长远来看兩國不太可能完全脱离,因为这不符合兩國的利益。

   “中國市场及其在全球产业链中的关键作用对美國公司来說太重要了,无法抛棄與其之間的聯系”他說。

此外,科学需要思想交流和共同协作才能取得进步。胡志堅表示,当面对从气候变化到人工智能和生物科学領域里不断变化的道德观念等共同的挑战,“需要全球共同努力,以便找到解决这些新問題的最佳解决方案。

    “正如一些政客所暗示的那樣,將科學界和世界分離開,對于最大限度地發揮科學潛力及其最大程度造福人民来說,是危险的且違反常理的,”他說。

鉴于当前美國政府的不可预测性,中國需要“保持理性、客观的态度,并且專注于按照自己的节奏来谋求國家发展”,他說,“我們必須有信心和耐心才能度過動蕩時期。”